The Inner Citadel by Pierre Hadot

One of the texts from the Ancient world of lasting influence, and which can still be enjoyed with sympathy by the modern reader, is Meditations ( by Marcus Aurelius. This Roman Emperor spent most of his life campaigning against barbarians, dealing with conspiracy at home, and combating Christianity. Yet the most powerful man in the world also managed to live as a Stoic, and to record his reflections on this way of life. Those meditations, as his inner pep talks are usually called, became one of the best-loved books of antiquity.

Pierre Hadot ( offers a broad introduction to the intellectual world of the second century. Through his analysis of the Meditations, Hadot reveals the mindset of those who ruled the Roman world at the height of its prosperity. Significant attention is paid to the teachings of Epictetus (, and is accompanied by rich insights into the culture of Rome at the time.

Check if this indispensable study of the Meditations is in stock at your local library by consulting the online catalogue at

362 pages in Harvard University Press

First published 1998

ISBN  978-0674007079

Pierre Hadot

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